These nine books therefore became the center of the educational system.They have been grouped into two categories: the Five Classics, allegedly commented and edited by Confucius, and the Four Books.After Gaozong's debilitating stroke in 660, Wu Zetian became administrator of the court, a position equal to the emperor's until 705.The importance to history of Wu Zetian's period of political and military leadership includes the major expansion of the Chinese empire, extending it far beyond its previous territorial limits, deep into Central Asia, and engaging in a series of wars on the Korean peninsula, first allying with Silla against Goguryeo, and then against Silla over occupation of formerly Goguryeo territory.In 621 AD, Emperor Gao Zu of the Tang Dynasty (618-907) cast a new coin known as the even some of the earliest forms of metal money such as spades and knives had charm-like qualities in that they had "auspicious" or "good luck" characters and inscriptions.This website primarily explores facets of Chinese culture through an examination of Chinese charms.
They were later adopted by the Qing Yun faction, the leader of the righteous and good.
which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).
Wu was the only one officially recognized Empress regnant of China in more than two millennia. After his death, she married his successor—his ninth son, Emperor Gaozong, officially becoming Gaozong's huanghou (皇后, variously translated as "empress", "wife", or "empress consort") in 655, although having considerable political power prior to this.
One of her grandsons became the renowned Emperor Xuanzong of Tang. Mention of her in the English language has only increased their number.
A difficulty in English translations from Chinese is that English translations tend to specify gender (as in the case of "emperor" versus "empress" or "prince" versus "princess"); whereas, in Classical Chinese, words such as hou (后, "sovereign", "prince", "queen") or huangdi (皇帝, "imperial supreme ruler", "royal deity") are of a grammatically indeterminate gender.